Genetic engineering is the applied aspect of molecular biology, which is the very basis of all living species. Molecular biology deals with the molecular basis of biological or genetic specificity. It has three components: Biochemistry, Genetics, and Cell Biology. Broadly, genetic engineering means the manipulation of genes under controlled laboratory conditions. Gene cloning, which includes the isolation and characterization of single genes and reintroduction and expression of these genes into cells of the same or different species, is the main focus of genetic engineering.
Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services. Here, biological agents include microbial, animal, or plant cells and enzymes that are used to synthesize, degrade or transform materials. The scientific and engineering principles are mainly: Biochemistry, Microbiology, Genetics, and Biochemical & Chemical Engineering. The most recently developed skill in present-day biotechnology is genetic engineering.