Fundamental of Ocean Sciences |
Course Title: Fundamental of Ocean Sciences
Course Credit: 2
1. History: Early history: development in the recent past; Branches; Oceanographic institutions
2. Origin of the Earth and Ocean: The age of the Earth and the geological time, scale; structure of the Earth’s interior and its composition; features of the Ocean; Continental drift and sea floor spreading; Plate tectonics-the types of plate boundaries-rifting and subduction zones; the trenches.
3. The sea floor and continental margins: the ocean basins- origin and morphology; identification of components of the ocean margin; ridges and rises; processes responsible for creating the ocean margin features; the shelf, slope and abyssal plain. Active and passive continental margin, trenches, oceanic ridges, submarine canyon, continental shelves & slope, ocean floor of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean.
4. Coastal Landform: Cliff, Sand dunes. Shores, Beaches, Tidal flat, Mud flat, lagoons.
5. Introduction to marine sediments: sediment sources and pattern of sediment deposition from the self to the deep ocean; sediment size and accumulation; sampling of sediments; dominant transportation processes; sea bed resources.
6. Biological basic terms, zonation of the oceans, history, physical & chemical properties of seawater, water masses, density, pressure, salinity, temperature change and causes, ocean heat content.
7. Ocean Currents: Causes, types, mean current in Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean.
8. Ocean Tide: Causes and effects. Global distribution, Implication.
9. Waves: causes, characteristics of wave actions, wave energy.
10. The marine environments: general conditions, distribution of life in the oceans; divisions of the marine environment- pelagic and benthic environments, Basic marine life styles, ocean acidification, marine climatic Zone, EL Nino. La Nina, Man Ocean relation.
11. Seal level changes: Definition, causes, past, present and future trends of sea level changes, effects of sea level change on marginal marine environments.
The Protozoa: Classification, Structures and features, nutrition, reproduction and development
Phylum: Porifera: Classification, Phylogeny, Structures and features, nutrition, reproduction and development.
Cnidaria: Features of the group, Structure and function of nematocysts, Generalized life cycle and body structure, Class Hydrozoa, Class Scyphozoa, Class Anthozoa.
Ctenophora (comb jellies): Characteristics of the phylum, General body plan, Colloblasts, Reproduction, Classes: Tentaculata, Nuda.
Platyhelminthes (flatworms): Features of the Phylum, Cephalization (adaptive features), Protonephridia: flatworms and other invertebrates, Class Turbellaria (free-living flatworms), Class Trematoda (flukes), Class Monogenea,Class Cestoda (tapeworms)
Mesozoans: Features, Phylum Rhombozoa, Phylum Orthonectida
Nemertea (Rhynchocoela): Characteristics of the phylum, Phylogenetic relationships Systems, Development (Spiral cleavage)
Gastrotricha: Features, Order Macrodasyoidea, Chaetonotoidea.
Rotifera: Feature, Structure: head, trunk, digestive tract, Reproduction and life cycle, development
Kinorhyncha: Features, General structure
Nematoda (Roundworms) and Namatomorpha (horsehair worms): Characteristics of the phylum, Structure,s Nutrition, Reproduction and development, Parasitism
Acanthocephala: Features, Structures, Reproduction and life cycle
Annelida: Features of the group, Class Polychaeta, Class Oligochaeta, Class Hirudinea (Leeches)
Mollusca: Classification, The hypothetical ancestral mollusk, Evolutionary trends within the phylum, The shell, life cycle and development with special importance on economically important species like crabs.
Arthropoda: Classification, General information and diagnostic features, Comparisons with annelids, nutrition, life cycle and development with special importance on economically important species like shrimp. Sipunculida "peanut worms", Echiurida "spoon worms" and Chaetognatha "arrow worms: General features, Body structure, Nutrition, Tardigrada "water bears": Features, Annelid-arthropod affinities.
Onychophora: Phylogenetic importance of group, General structure; habitat, Arthropod affinities, Annelid affinities, Nutrition.
The lophophorate coelomates: Lophophorate features, Relationships to protostomes and deuterostomes, Bryozoa (or Ectoprocta), "lamp shells".
Echinodermata: Characteristics, "brittle stars", Echinoidea, sea cucumbers", Class Crinoidea "sea lilies".
Fundamentals of Marine Chemistry |
Course Title: Fundamentals of Marine Chemistry
Course Credit: 3
1. Introduction- Scope and History of chemical oceanography, Major features of ocean circulation, Physical properties of sea water.
2. Major constituents of seawater Salinity, chlorinity, conductivity, and density, Relationships between chlorinity and salinity, Residence times.
3. Simple gas laws, Solubility in water, Sources and sinks within the ocean, Atmospheric exchange by diffusion, Air injection, Solubility of salts, Freezing point and boiling point, Osmotic pressure, Electrostriction, Carbon dioxide.
4. Nutrients- Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Silicon, Other nutrients, Quantitative relationships, Initial nutrients.
5. Trace metals and other minor elements- Analytical considerations, various patterns of distribution, Mercury, an interesting special case, Speciation, Iron, another special case, and Trace elements in sediments.
6. Radioactive clocks- Radioactivity, Radionuclides in seawater, the uranium series, C-14.
7. Organic matter in the sea-Historical note, Primary production, Other sources of organic matter, Fate of the primary product, Measurement of organic carbon in seawater, Concentration and age of marine organic matter, Nature of marine organic matter.
8. Anoxic marine environments-Rates of oxygen consumption, Anoxic oxidation, The Black Sea, River input, Air-sea exchange, Sediment-water exchange, Residence times
9. Chemical extraction of useful substances from the sea- Salt, Evaporation of seawater, Rock salt, Magnesium, Bromine, Gold.
10. Geochemical history of the oceans- Illustrative rates, Early history of the ocean volume, Glacially caused changes in ocean volume, Mass of salt in the ocean, Composition of sea salt, Oxygen, Strontium isotopes, The churning of the Earth.
Introduction to Atmospheric Science |
Course Title: Introduction to Atmospheric Science
Course Credit: 2
Structure and composition of the atmosphere, Equation of state for dry and moist air, Adiabatic and Isothermal Processes, Humidity Parameters, Virtual Temperature,
Standard Atmosphere, Barometric Altimetry, Laws of thermodynamics, Entropy,
Potential Temperature, Pseudo- adiabatic Process, Equivalent Temperature, Equivalent
Potential Temperature, Claussius – Clapeyron Equation, Stability and Instability, Parcel
Method and Slice Method, Entrainment in Cb clouds, Thermodynamic Diagram: p, α –
diagram, Emagram, T - φ gram, Uses of thermodynamic diagrams, Precipitable Water
Vapor, Rate of Precipitation, Role of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and
Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE) in thunderstorm development.
Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere- Temperature of the Sun and spectral distribution
of solar radiation, long wave radiation, black body radiation budget of radiation energy. Passage of solar radiation through the atmosphere, Atmospheric Windows, emissivity, Absorption spectra of atmospheric gases, optically thick and thin approximations, aerosol scattering, calculations of radiative heating and cooling. Terrestrial radiation and its passage through the atmosphere. Raleigh and Mie scattering. Role of atmospheric dust in radiation balance, effect of volcanoes.
Atmospheric aerosols: Concentration and size, sources, and transformation, Chemical composition, transport and sinks, residence times of aerosols, geographical distribution and atmospheric effects. Continental and Marine (Origin, Physical and Chemical characteristics), Cloud Morphology, Warm Cloud Microphysics (Nucleation and Condensation), Growth of cloud droplets by collision and coalescence, Cold Cloud Microphysics (Nucleation and growth of ice), Ice in the atmosphere.
Chemistry of the atmosphere : Evolution of earth’s atmosphere, Nitrogen, hydrogen halogen, sulfur, carbon-containing compounds in the atmosphere, ozone and neutral chemistry, chemical and photochemical processes, Chemical and dynamical life time of atmospheric constituent.
Ozone in the Atmosphere: Evolution of the ozone layer, sources and sinks of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone and UV-radiations, supersonic transport.
Air Pollution: Sources of anthropogenic pollution, Atmospheric effects- smog, visibility.
1. Introduction to marine botany: Marine environment and plants, factors affecting marine life, importance of marine macrophytes and microphytes.
2. Introduction to the Algae: Introduction to botanical taxonomy and phylogeny. Diversity, Taxonomy, and Functional Forms of algae.
3. Algal Physiology: Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Primary Productivity. Relationships with light, temperature, pH, osmotic changes, etc.
4. Algal Ecology - Environmental Controls on Algal Diversity and Abundance: Light, Temperature, Water Motion, Salinity, Human Affairs and Marine Plants
5. Macroalgae: Habitat, distribution, biology, importance of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta. Coral Reef, macroalgae and eutrophication processes, Microalgae (Phytoplankton): Habitat, distribution, biology, importance of Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta and Haptophyta. Harmful algal blooms (HABs)
6. Cyanobacteria: Habitat, distribution, biology, importance
7. Marine angiosperms: distribution and adaptations
8. Mangroves, Marsh Plants, Seagrasses
9. Economic botany and plant biotechnology
Concepts of Functions, Application to Graphing, Limits, Continuity, Rate of Change: The Derivative, Differentiation Rules, Rates, Linear Approximations, Successive Differentiation of various types of Functions, Leibnitz's Theorem; Analysis of Functions: Increase, Decrease and Concavity, Rolle's Theorem; Mean Value theorem ; Maclaurin and Taylor Polynomials and Series, Absolute Maximum and Minimum, Maximum and Minimum values of Functions, Partial Differentiation; Evaluation of Indeterminate forms by L'Hospitals rule, Euler's Theorem.
The Indefinite Integral, Integration by the Method of Substitutions, Integration by parts; Reduction Formula, Trigonometric Integrals, Integrating Rational Functions by Partial Fractions, Integration by the Method of successive reduction; Definite Integrals and its properties; The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Applications of the Definite Integral in Geometry, Science and Engineering (Area between curves; volumes by slicing, disk & washers; volumes by Cylindrical shells, length of a plane curve, Area of a surface of revolution, Work, Fluid pressure and force), Graphing in polar coordinates, Improper integrals, Beta function and Gamma function.
Three dimensional space; Introduction to vectors, Calculus of vector valued functions, Unit tangent, normal and Bi-normal vectors, Topics in Vector Calculus, Vector fields, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Applications.
1. Estimation of physical properties of sea water: Temperature, conductivity, density.
2. Estimation of chemical properties of sea water: Dissolved oxygen (DO), carbon dioxide (CO2), biological oxygen demand (BOD), salinity, Chlorinity.
3. Field work: Visit to marine and coastal areas to observe the oceanographic phenomenon
4. Identification of marine invertebrates: mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, etc.
5. Study of permanent slides of various microscopic marine invertebrates.
6. Dissection and study of digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive systems of different marine invertebrates.
1. Collection, preservation and identification of marine invertebrates. Museum Study of marine vertebrates.
7. Identification of marine macrophytes and microphytes.
8. Light and growth of green algae.
9. Collection of marine plants.
10. Estimation of chemical properties of sea water: pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), carbon dioxide (CO2), biological oxygen demand (BOD), salinity, Chlorinity.
11. Estimation of DOM and DON.
12. Identification of marine vertebrates: Fish, reptiles, mammals.
13. Dissection and study of digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive systems of different marine vertebrates: Fish, reptiles, mammals.
14. Histopathological study of various organs of marine vertebrates.
15. Problem solving in calculus by using MATLAB.
1. Introduction to Geological oceanography: development in the recent past. Scope origin and distribution of ocean ; ocean morphology –physical feature of deep ocean floor –ocean ridges, rises, and Trenches ;submarine canyons ;physical and chemical properties of ocean water; SMOW; Ocean circulation and ocean currents ; waves and Tides coastral morphology and major coastral process coastral nearshore shelf slope and Abbysal-plan
2. Sedimentation ; oceanic crust; Rifting and Sea-floor spreading; Major Features and Evolution of the oceans; Mid-ocean ridges and volcanism; Eustasy and relative sea-level changes; Mineral resources of the oceans.
3. The marine environments: general conditions, distribution of life form in the oceans; divisions of the marine environment- pelagic and benthic environments, Basic marine life styles.
4. Seal level changes: Geological evidence and consequences: Eustatic vs. relative sea level changes: effects of sea level change on marginal marine environments.
5. Geological Oceanography of the Bay of Bengal: Bay of Bengal-Evolution; Major morphometric features; the shelf, slope, 90° East Ridge, Plate boundary, active subduction, passive margin, sediment budget.
6. Swatch of No Ground: Origin, geological characteristics, size and extent, sediment dynamics, water mass, importance.
7. Bengal deep sea fan: Extents, types, sediment types, sedimentary sequences
8. Palae-environment of the Bay of Bengal: Methods of reconstruction, deep sea drill, core, oxygen isotope stage, sea level changes
9. Off-shore islands: Formations, types, distribution and recording, characteristics
10. St. Martin Island: Geology and formation, morphology, ecology, sustainable management
Introduction: Nature and properties of fluid, forces and flows. Dimensions, dimensional homogeneity and units, Continuum hypothesis, Measures of fluid mass & weight, Density, specific weight, specific gravity. Ideal or perfect fluid, Viscosity, Effects of Viscosity, Kinematic Viscosity, Compressibility of fluids, Surface Tension. Incompressible fluid, rotational flows, Boussinesq approximation, Boundary conditions. Pressure and Depth, The Hydrostatic Pressure, Atmospheric pressure.
Fluid kinematics: The velocity field, Eulerian and Lagrangian flow descriptions: The particle derivative, steady and unsteady flows, One-, two- and three dimensional flows, Stream line, Path line, Streak line, Control volume, Equation of Continuity, Cartesian Coordinates, Spherical Polar coordinates, Cylindrical polar coordinates, linear strain rate, shear strain rate
Conservation laws: Euler’s equation of motion, Boundary Conditions, The Bernoulli's equation, applications of Bernoulli's equation, Energy Equation
Motion in Two Dimensions: Stream Function, Physical Interpretation of Stream function, Complex potential and Complex Velocity, Source, Sink, Doublet, Vorticity, Body force and Surface force and circulation,
Currents: Classification, behavior and other effects, Inertial boundary currents along curvy coastlines: flow separation.
Waves: Introduction, Wave motion, Stationary Waves, Surface waves, Two Dimensional Wave Equation and Characteristics, Waves at sea, Some Special Waves. Coastal Shock Waves and Bores.
The dynamics of the Bangladesh coastal marine layer: supercritical flow, expansion fans and oblique shocks. Coastal Gravity currents.
The inertial behavior of upwelling jets and fronts: application to the Oregon coastal jet.
Coastal erosion, Planning and methods of coast protection works - Design of shore defense structures.
The earth as a planet; different motions of the earth; gravity field of the earth, Clairaut’s theorem, size and shape of earth; geochronology; seismology and interior of the earth; variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth; earthquakes-causes and measurements, magnitude and intensity, focal mechanisms, earthquake quantification, source characteristics, seismotectonics and seismic hazards; digital seismographs, geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism; oceanic and continental lithosphere; plate tectonics; heat flow; upper and lower atmospheric phenomena.
Scalar and vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell and Helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates; Green’s theorem; Image theory; integral equations in potential theory; Eikonal equation and Ray theory. Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems of geophysics, Ill-posedness of inverse problems.
‘G’ and ‘g’ units of measurement, absolute and relative gravity measurements; Land, airborne, shipborne and bore-hole gravity surveys; various corrections in gravity data reduction – free air, Bouguer and isostatic anomalies; density estimates of rocks; regional and residual gravity separation; principle of equivalent stratum; upward and downward continuation; wavelength filtering; preparation and analysis of gravity maps; gravity anomalies and their interpretation – anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies, depth rules, calculation of mass.
Earth’s magnetic field – elements, origin and units of measurement, magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements, magnetometers, Land, airborne and marine magnetic surveys, corrections, preparation of magnetic maps, upward and downward continuation, magnetic anomalies-geometrical shaped bodies, depth estimates, Image processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps; Interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data.
Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical conductivities of metals, non-metals, rock forming minerals and different rocks, concepts of D.C. resistivity measurement, various electrode configurations for resistivity sounding and profiling, application of filter theory, Type-curves over multi-layered structures, Dar-Zarrouck parameters, reduction of layers, coefficient of anisotropy, interpretation of resistivity field data, equivalence and suppression, self potential and its origin, field measurement, Induced polarization, time and frequency domain IP measurements; interpretation and applications of IP, ground-water exploration, environmental and engineering applications.
Basic concept of EM induction, Origin of electromagnetic field, elliptic polarization, methods of measurement for different source-receiver configuration, components in EM measurements. Skin-depth, interpretation and applications; earth’s natural electromagnetic field, tellurics, magneto-tellurics; geomagnetic depth sounding principles, electromagnetic profiling, methods of measurement, processing of data and interpretation. Geological applications including groundwater, mining and hydrocarbon exploration.
Seismic methods of prospecting; Elastic properties of earth materials; Reflection, refraction and CDP surveys; land and marine seismic sources, generation and propagation of elastic waves, velocity – depth models, geophones, hydrophones, recording instruments (DFS), digital formats, field layouts, seismic noises and noise profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays, 2D and 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation; CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering, dip-moveout, static and dynamic corrections, Digital seismic data processing, seismic deconvolution and migration methods, attribute analysis, bright and dim spots, seismic stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP, AVO. Reservoir geophysics.
Geophysical signal processing, sampling theorem, aliasing, Nyquist frequency, Fourier series, periodic waveform, Fourier and Hilbert transform, Z-transform and wavelet transform; power spectrum, delta function, auto correlation, cross correlation, convolution, deconvolution, principles of digital filters, windows, poles and zeros.
Principles and techniques of geophysical well-logging. SP, resistivity, induction, gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic, cement bond logging, micro-logs. Quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs; well hydraulics and application of geophysical methods for groundwater study; application of bore hole geophysics in ground water, mineral and oil exploration.
Radioactive methods of prospecting and assaying of minerals (radioactive and non radioactive) deposits, half-life, decay constant, radioactive equilibrium, G M counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor devices, application of radiometric for exploration and radioactive waste disposal.
Geophysical inverse problems; non-uniqueness and stability of solutions; quasi-linear and non-linear methods including Tikhonov’s regularization method, Backus-Gilbert method, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms and artificial neural network.
Differential Equation and Linear Algebra |
Course Title: Differential Equation and Linear Algebra
Course Credit: 3
Differential equations & Mathematical Models Integrals as General and Particular solutions
Separable Equations & Applications, Linear first order differential equations
Substitution methods & Exact Equations
Introduction to Linear Systems, Matrices, Gaussian Elimination & Gauss – Jordan Elimination method
Reduced Row-echelon Matrices, Matrix Operations, Inverse of Matrices, Determinants
The Vector Spaces R3 and Rn & Subspaces.
Linear Combination & Independence of Vectors, Basis and Dimension for Vector Spaces
Solution of general linear equations of second and higher orders with constant coefficients, Solution of homogeneous linear equations with constant coefficients, Method of Undetermined Coefficients
Method of Variation of Parameters,
Introduction to Eigenvalues, Diagonalization of Matrices, Application involving Powers of Matrices
First order Systems & Applications, Matrices and Linear Systems
The Eigenvalue Method for Linear Systems, Multiple Eigenvalue Solutions
Partial Differential Equation: Solution of Wave Equation, Diffusion Equation, Laplace's Equation, Heat Equation.
1 Classification of the Phylum Chordate up to Order with special emphasis on the aquatic ones.
2 Marine Fishes- Protochordates, Class Agnatha – Jawless fish, Class Chondrichthyes – Cartilaginous fish (sharks, rays), Class Osteichthyes – Bony fish
3 Marine Reptiles – Sea Crocodiles, Sea Snakes, Sea Lizards, and Sea Turtles
4 Marine Birds- Common Shorebirds, Diving Shorebirds, Diving Pelagic Birds, Penguins
5 Marine Mammals- Cetaceans: Whales and Dolphins, Seals and Other Marine Mammals
6 Economic importance of various groups of marine vertebrates
1. Basic concepts in analytical chemistry: Background aspects, classical and modern concepts of analytical detection and quantification. Sensitivity, selectivity, specificity, concentration limit, dilution limit, etc. of chemical reactions sampling and sample preparation for quantitative analysis, group separation, elemental analysis, and analysis of insoluble materials.
2. Acid-Base reactions: Acid-base equilibria and buffers in analytical chemistry, indicators, chemical equilibria in solution, complexation and equilibria oxidation-reductions in chemical analysis.
3. Separation methods: Precipitation and co-precipitation phenomenon, group chemistry for qualitative analysis, solvent extraction, ion exchange separation and chromatographic methods: paper and thin layer chromatography.
4. Complexometric titrations:Complexation of metal ions, complexation equilibria, Complexometric titration with chelating agents such as EDTA, NTA etc. Organic reagents in analytical chemistry, Metal indicators and their characteristics, Limitations of complexometric measurements.
5. Instrumental methods of chemical analysis:Spectroscopic methods: UV and visible radiation, absorbance and transmittance, absorptivity, the Beer-Lamberts law, basic components of a spectrometer, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and Potentiometric analysis, stoichiometric determination of metal-legand complexes.
6. Errors in analytical measurements: The significant figure convention, accuracy, precision, mean deviation, standard deviation, types of error. Treatment of analytical results, Sensitivity and detection limit of instrument, quality assurance and quality control of analytical results.
7. Analytical chemistry of chemical pollutants: Collection of environmental, samples and measurements of important parameters such as BOD, COD, DO, pH and temperature for water quality assessments. Potentiometric and complexometric analysis of water quality (hardness nitrate, ammonia etc.). Analysis of volatile organics and gases like NOx; and SOX in the atmosphere.
8. Redox Reactions:Oxidation-reduction equilibria in chemical analysis, redox titration curve, indicators for oxidation-reduction titration, KMnO4 as a standard oxidants titration with K2Cr2O7 and cerium(IV), redox titration involving iodine, iodometric and iodimetrictitration methods.
9. Solvent extraction in analytical chemistry: Separation processes, liquid-liquid extraction, distribution of solute between solvent pair, effect of number of extraction, batch and continues extractions, some examples of liquid-liquid extraction.
10. Gravimetric Methods of analysis:Principle of gravimetric methods, properties of precipitates and precipitating agents, coagulation and peptization of precipitates, treatments of colloidal precipitates, co-precipitation and post precipitation, drying andignition of precipitates, results and calculation.
1. Problem solving in linear algebra; differential equation, hydrodynamics by using MATLAB.
2. Measurements of water temperature, TSS, TDS etc. Measurements of seawater properties: Salinity, EC, Eh, Density. Use of TS diagram temperature, salinity and density profile making and interpretation.
3. Microscopic examination of sediment particles for determination of sorting, grading and roundness. Texture analysis using standard sieves, fall velocity. Shore profiling using Emory Rod. Topographic and bathymetric maps. Sediment trap, sediment transport, Water current, velocity.
4. Flow observation: Open channel flow, water current, velocity. Determination of flow by Current meter, ADCP. Tide and wave measurement.
5. Chemistry of water and sea water. Major and minor elements in the sea water. Composition of sea water. Determination of dissolved gases in the sea water e.g. DO, Co2. Determination of nutrients (No3, No2, Po4, NH4, Si etc) Determination of carbonates, bicarbonates., hydrocarbon.
6. Collection, preservation and identification of marine organisms. Vertebrates: fishes, birds, reptiles and other mammals). Museum Study of marine vertebrates.
7. Preparation, handling of plankton collection equipments. Culture techniques of planktons. Collection, preservation, identification of plankton samples.
1. Physical Oceanography: Introduction. Definition, Scope, Multidisciplinary investigation application for Bangladesh.
2. Relief of the Ocean: Physical feature of the ocean floor, ocean floor topography, trenches, oceanic ridges, submarine canyon, passive and active continental margin, continental shelves & slope, ocean floor of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean.
3. Ocean Sediments: Source of sediments, types, characteristics, depositional environments.
4. Ocean temperature: Temperature change, causes, vertical and horizontal distribution and Implication.
5. Ocean Salinity: Salinity change, causes, distribution and implication.
6. Ocean Currents: Causes, types, mean current in Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean.
7. Ocean Tide: Causes and effects. Global distribution, Implication.
8. Waves: causes, characteristics of wave actions, wave energy.
9. Storm surges and cyclones, characteristics, environmental consequences and management.
10. Sea level change: Definition, causes, past, present and future trends of S. L. changes. Consequences of S. L. changes.
11. Marine Environment: Marine climatic Zone, EL Nino. La Nina, Man Ocean relation.
Oceanography of the Bay of Bengal |
Course Title: Oceanography of the Bay of Bengal
Course Credit: 2
1. Introduction: Location, boundary, historical perspectives, human occupancy
2. Physical Oceanography of the Bay of Bengal:
Continental shelf: Bottom topography, bathymetric changes, sediment dispersal. Ocean dynamics: Tidal characteristics, vertical and horizontal distribution of ocean temperature, salinity and density; aerial and seasonal variation of ocean currents, sediment transport, estuaries and estuaries dynamics.
3. Geological Oceanography of the Bay of Bengal: the shelf, slope, 90° East Ridge, Plate boundary, active subduction, passive margin, sediment budget. Swatch of No Ground: Origin, geological characteristics, size and extent, sediment dynamics, water mass, importance. Bengal deep sea fan: Extents, types, sediment types, sedimentary sequences. Palae-environment of the Bay of Bengal: Methods of reconstruction, deep sea drill, core, oxygen isotope stage, sea level changes. Off-shore islands: Formations, types, distribution and recording, characteristics St. Martin Island: Geology and formation, morphology, ecology, sustainable management
4. Chemical Oceanography of the Bay of Bengal: Water chemistry, sediment chemistry. Horizontal and vertical profiles of nutrients (No3, No2, NH4, Si), vertical profiles of O2, CO2, Bio-geo-chemistry of the Bay of Bengal.
5. Biological Oceanography of the Bay of Bengal: Mixed layer depth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll concentration, primary production, secondary production, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, fisheries production
6. Satellite Oceanography of the Bay of Bengal: Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Water circulation of the Bay of Bengal, chlorophyll concentration.
7. Modeling: Box model, 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional model, Physical, biological, ecological, bio-geo-chemical and ecosystem model of the Bay of Bengal. Storm surge modelling.
8. Geopolitics of Bay of Bengal: Geo-political importance of Bay of Bengal, Case study: Bangladesh Myanmar maritime boundary conflict and verdict.
The physical chemistry of sea water: The crustal-ocean-atmosphere factory, The waters of the sea, Sea salt is more than NaCl, Salinity as a conservative tracer, The nature of chemical transformations in the ocean; Gas solubility and exchange across the air-sea interface.
The redox chemistry of seawater: The importance of oxygen; Organic matter: production and destruction; Vertical segregation of the biolimiting elements; Horizontal segregation of the biolimiting elements; Trace elements in seawater; Diagenesis.
The chemistry of marine sediments: Classification of sediments; Clay minerals and other detrital silicates; Calcite, alkalinity, and the pH of seawater; Biogenic silica; Evaporites; Iron-manganese nodules and other hydrogenous minerals; Metalliferous sediments and other hydrothermal deposits; Global pattern of sediment distribution; Why seawater is salty but not too salty
Organic biogeochemistry: Marine biogeochemistry: an overview; The production and destruction of organic compounds in the sea; The marine nitrogen and phosphorus cycles; The marine carbon cycle and global climate change; The origin of petroleum in the marine environment; Organic products from the sea: Pharmaceuticals, Nutraceuticals, Food additives, and Cosmoceuticals.
Marine pollution: Marine pollution: the oceans as a waste space.
Light stable isotopes: Water stable isotopes: atmospheric composition and application in polar ice core studies; Stable isotope applications in hydrologic studies; Elemental and isotopic proxies of past ocean temperatures; Sulfur-rich sediments; High-molecular-weight petrogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbons in aquatic environments.
Radiocarbon. Noble gases as mantle tracers.
Radiogenic isotopes: Sampling mantle heterogeneity through oceanic basalts: Isotopes and trace elements; Radiogenic isotopes in weathering and hydrology; Long-lived isotopic tracers in oceanography, paleoceanography, and Ice-sheet dynamics; Records of Cenozoic ocean chemistry.
Ocean Minerals and Energy Resources |
Course Title: Ocean Minerals and Energy Resources
Course Credit: 2
Module-I: Ocean minerals
1. Introduction and scope. Study of physical and chemical properties of minerals.
2. Genesis of minerals. Chemical composition of Earth’s crust.
3. Geochemical classifications of the elements. Environments of mineral formation.
4. Detailed classification and study of minerals with particular emphasis on Rock forming minerals. Paragenesis.
5. Association, occurrence and use of minerals. Determinative mineralogy- physical and chemical tests.
6. Optical mineralogy: Index of refraction; Relief and dispersion; plane-polarized light in minerals; slow and fast rays; extinction angle; elongation and anomalus interference; Michel-Lecy method; Plagioclase feldspar composition; Uniaxial and biaxial minerals.
7. Mineral resources of Bangladesh and subcontinent: Mineral resources of Bangladesh; occurrence; Distribution; Stratigraphic relationship; Reserves and uses of Hydrocarbon (gas, oil and condensates); Coal; Peat; Limestone; Glass sand; White clay; Placer deposits; Hard rocks; Light weight aggregates; Building materials; Metallic minerals; Important and strategic mineral resources of India, Bhutan, Nepal, and Myanmar; National mineral policy of Bangladesh.
Module –II Ocean Energy Resources
1. Introduction to the ocean environment: Ocean circulation and stratification; Ocean habitat; Ocean economy.
2. Ocean surface waves: Wave measurement; Linear wave theory; Wave spectrum; Wave energy resource.
3. Ocean tidal currents: Current measurement; Current turbulence; Current energy resource.
4. Site selection and characterization for ocean energy systems.
5. Wave energy systems: Types of wave energy converters; Linear wave‐structure interactions; Frequency domain analysis; Hydrodynamic coefficients and their computation; Time domain analysis; Phase control; Arrays; Model testing techniques.
6. Marine current turbines: Types of marine current turbines; Hydrodynamic models (BEM, Lifting line, IBEM); Hydrofoil data and analysis; Cavitation and strength; Design criteria; Multiple turbine interaction
7. Other types of energy systems: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC); Energy from salinity gradient
8. Power take‐off systems: Air turbines, Water turbines; High pressure hydraulic systems; Electrical generation; Energy storage.
9. Mooring and anchoring systems. Farm layout. Offshore electrical grid and connection systems. Operation and maintenance of ocean energy devices. Offshore operations. Maritime safety issues.
10. Economic analysis: Cost, Financing mechanisms; Economic evaluation; Life ‐cycle assessment.
11. Policy issues: Socio‐economic impact; Licensing & permitting; Environmental impact assessment.
The molecular logic of life; Biomolecules: composition and principles of organization; Energy and principles of bioenergetics; Prospects and application of molecular biology in marine science.
Non-covalent interactions, Properties of water; Acid/base properties, pH buffering capacity.
Cells and organelles and their composition :
Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, Sub-cellular organelles and their functional characteristics, common structural features of bacterial cells.
Amino acids :
Classification, structural features, Buffering capacity, acid-base properties, characteristic chemical reactions, optical behaviour, Essential amino acids, nonstandard amino acids, synthesis of important biomolecules.
Primary structure – the peptide bond, sequence homology and evolution, Secondary structure of proteins - protein conformation, planar peptide bonds -keratins and -keratins – conformation and structure, structures of collagen and elastin, filamentous proteins, actin, myosin and microtubules. Tertiary structures of proteins - distinctive tertiary structures of myoglobin and ribonuclease, renaturation of ribonuclease, factors contributing to oxygen saturation curve of hemoglobin, sickle-cell anemia and its relation to hemoglobin.
Basics concepts – characteristics, classification, catalytic properties, lowering of activation energy, prosthetic group, coenzyme, cofactor, concept of specificity of enzyme, identification of residues at active sites and effect of substrate concentration, temperature and pH on enzyme activity; activity unit, specific activity, turnover number.
Monosaccharides - their biological properties, color reactions of carbohydrates, important derivatives of monosaccharides, sugar acids, important reactions of carbohydrates. Disaccharides and oligosaccharides of biological importance - maltose, lactose, sucrose and other disaccharides. Polysaccharides –storage and structural polysaccharides, structures and function of starch, glycogen and cellulose, other polysaccharides of biological interests, biological degradation, artificial sweeteners, dextrans. Glycosaminoglycans - structures and functions; the pentose phosphate pathway; the TCA cycle.
Chemical nature, biological functions, classification with representative examples, fatty acids - nomenclature, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and fats, essential fatty acids; triacylglycerol, phospholipids, sphingolipids, cerebrosides, gangliosides, action of phospholipases on membrane phospholipids. Fatty acid synthesis, β-oxidation.
Chemistry of nucleic acids:
Classification and composition of nucleic acids, bases, sugars, nucleosides, nucleotides and polynucleotides.
DNA as genetic material:
Gene concept, conceptual relationship between gene and chromosomes, and gene and enzymes.
Watson and Crick model and its characteristics, isolation of DNA from natural sources, its physicochemical properties.
Replication as continuity of transfer of genetic information. Transcription, types of RNAs, their characteristics and function. Translation leading to functional protein synthesis, colinearity of genes and proteins.
FORTRAN: Introductions to Computers and Fortran Languages, Disk Operating System: MS DOS, WINDOWS.
Problem-Solving Techniques using Computers: Flowcharts, Algorithms, Pseudo code.
Programming in FORTAN: Syntax and Semantics, Data types and structure impute/output, loops decision statements, arrays, user defined functions, subroutines and recursion.
Computing using FORTAN: Construction and implementations of FORTAN Programs for solving problem in mathematics and sciences.
A brief history review of MATLAB, Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming, Variable and Constants, Data Structure, Basic Structure of MATLAB, Fundamental of Mathematical calculations, Flow Control Structure of MATLAB language, Writing and Debugging MATLAB functions, Two Dimensional Graphics, Calculus Problem, Series Expansions and Series Evaluations, Differential Equation problems.
Time Series Editor: Introduction, New File Dialog, Export to ASCII File, File properties Dialog, Tabular View, Graphical View, Graphical settings, Font settings, File formats, Tools.
Profiles Series Editor: Introduction, Properties, Geographical Information, Tabular View, Graphical View, Navigation View
Grid Series Editor: Introduction, Create New dataset, Open an existing dataset, editing the dataset, Edit, view, Tools, Data Overlay
Bethymetry Editor, Mesh Generator, Data Viewer, Data Manager, Data Extraction FM, Result Viewer, Climate Change
1. Laboratory studies based on theory course, ocean minerals and energy sources.
2. Acid-base equilibria, pH, buffer systems.
3. Ionisation equilibria of acids and bases in aqueous solutions
4. pH-stabilising acid-base systems (buffers) and the influence of pH on ionization.
5. Measurement of the pH
6. Demo calculations of charge and pI
7. Demonstration that pI is the average of the pKa values of the carboxylic acid and amino groups of an amino acid lacking an ionisable group in its side c
8. Demonstration that the pI value of aspartic acid is the average of the pKavalues of the two carboxylic acid groups in it
9. Demo calculation of the isoelectric point of a protein
10. Spectrophotometry and protein concentration measurements; The UV-VIS photometer
1. Scope and application; Relation to other geological disciplines. Facies relationships and associations; Facies construction; Facies interpretation.
2. Facies models-methods, Functions and applications. Sequence and cyclicity; concepts and principles of sequence; Basin-forming process; External controls on Basin-fill.
3. Study of selected environments: Alluvial fans-sedimentary processes and controls; Facies types; Fan sequences; Fluvial systems-Classifications; Fluid dynamics; Flow regime; Facies models; Modern examples and ancient sequences.
4. Interdeltaic shoreline environments; Tidal clastic systems-procsses; Facies association. Vertical facies sequences; Modern and ancient examples;
5. Deep-sea fan environment – morphology; processes; Turbidite sequences- Facies models; Modern examples and ancient sequence palaeocurrent and basin analysis-Directional structures and Fabric- Scalar and compositional properties; Method of analysis; Interpretation. Sedimentation and Tectonics theories; Subsidence and sedimentation.
6. Orogenic sediments-tectonics and sedimentary properties. Sediment Transport and Deposition.
7. Siliciclastic Sedimentary Rocks, Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks.
1. Introduction, scope, Stratigraphic concepts-strata and stratification; Stratigraphic contacts-conformable strata; Laterally adjacent lithosomes; Unconformable contacts; Vertical and lateral successions of strata-Nature, Cyclic successions. Stratigraphic classification; Stratigraphic column; Stratigraphic subdivisions and Stratigraphic procedures. Unconformities and their significance. Stratigraphic correlation-principles and methods of Stratigraphic correlation.
2. Sedimentary facies; Walther’s law; Effects of climate and sea level on sedimentation patterns.
3. Seismic Stratigraphy; Cyclic Stratigraphy; Sequence Stratigraphy; Magneto Stratigraphy; Biostratigraphy; Chronostratigraphy; Regional and gobal stratigraphic cycles.
4. Depositional Environments-environmental criteria; Factors; Elements and parameters. Classification; Description and recognition of major environmental complexes.
5. Stratigraphic problems, Times and place- Archaean, Proterozoic, Archaeological and Quaternary. Stratigraphic architecture.
Introduction to marine microbiology: Marine microbes and domains of life; Physiological aspects of marine prokaryotes, archaea, proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, planctomyces, spirochaetes, hyperthermophiles; Environmental factors and their influence in microorganism development.
Diversity of microorganisms: Principal groups and characteristics of marine bacteria; Viruses in marine environments; Distribution, number and biomass of microorganisms at the sea; Life in extreme environments: thermophylus, acidophylus, alcalophylus, halotolerant etc.
Role of microorganisms in marine trophic networks: Microbes-important part of the food chain; Cycles of elements at sea (nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus); Production and decomposition of organic material; Microbial role in sediment formation; Microbial activity at hydrothermal vents.
Interactions of microorganisms: Microbe-microbe interaction and interaction with other marine organisms; Metabiosis between organisms; Symbiosis in marine environment: Commensalism, mutualism, parasitism; Negative associations: competition, predation and parasitism.
Isolation, cultivation and identification of marine microorganisms: Sampling techniques; Isolation of microorganisms; Culture medium and culture conditions for marine microorganisms; Molecular methods for microbial identification.
Marine microbes and biotechnology: Marine natural products- microbial enzymes, anti-microbial peptides, fungal metabolites, polysaccharides from marine organisms; Pharmaceuticals- nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, selenoneine; Blue biotechnology-bioenergy and biofuels; Use of marine microorganisms in biomineralization.
Numerical Techniques in Oceanography |
Course Title: Numerical Techniques in Oceanography
Course Credit: 3
Error Analysis: Introduction, Numbers and their Accuracy, Round off Errors, Errors and their Computation, Absolute Error, Relative Error and Percentage Error, Convergence.
Solutions of Equation in One Variable: The Bisection Method, Fixed Point Iteration Method, Newton-Raphson’s Method, Error Analysis for Iterative Methods.
Interpolation and Polynomial Approximation: Finite Differences, Forward Differences, Backward Differences, Central Differences,Newton’s Formula for Interpolation andLagrange Polynomial and Interpolation.
Curve Fitting: Introduction, Least-Squares Curve Fitting Procedures, Fitting a Straight Line, Nonlinear Curve Fitting, Power Function, Polynomial of the nth degree, Exponential function.
Numerical Differentiation and Integration:Introduction, NumericalDifferentiation,Error’s in Numerical differentiation, Elements of Numerical integration, Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s 1/3 - Rule, Simpson’s 3/8 Rule.
Numerical Solution of Initial Value Problem for Differential Equation: Euler’s Method, Taylor’s Series Method, Runge-Kutta Methods of Order Two and Order four.
Solutions of Liner System of Equations: Gaussian Elimination Method with backward substitutions,Matrix Factorization, LU Decomposition Method.Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, The Eigenvalue Problem.
Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations: Finite-Difference Approximations to Derivatives, Laplace’s Equations, Jacobi’s Method, Gauss Seidel Method. Applications in Oceanographic Model.
1. Analysis of Radiosonde data using T Φ diagram: Calculation of virtual temperature. Calculation of pressure height curve. Plotting of the sounding data Dry bulb, wet bulb and Dew point curve construction. Graphical construction of LCL, CCL and level of free convection. Demarcation of positive and negative areas. Instability indices and calculation using T-Φ diagram. Automated computation of above indices.
2. Determination of trace elements. Determination of lethal doses. Radioactive and stable isotopes. Comparative study of organisms between polluted and unpolluted area.
3. Measurement of pCo2.
4. Basic idea about HPLC, GC/MS, LC/MS, ICP/AES, ICP/MS etc.
5. Estimation of various biodiversity indices.
6. Land use zoning for mangrove afforestation, shrimp farming, salt production and coastal tourism development.
7. ArcView/TNTLite/GRASS, Using raster layers in ArcView/TNTLite/GRASS. Digitization/Screen digitization exercises. Raster, Vector data processing. Georeferencing, Attribute/Data manipulation. Case studies.
8. Image file/format manipulation. Radiometric/Geometric correction practices. Unsupervised classification, training and supervised classification practices. Post processing practices. Output and mapping practices. GIS analyses of post processing RS data. Use of satellite in Chlorophyll measurements. SARS images in Oceanography. Case Studies.
9. Collection, preservation and identification of marine plankton and benthic organisms.
10. Culture of marine phytoplankton.
11. Solve Numerical Analysis Problem by Using MATLAB and FORTRAN
The composition of atmosphere:
The composition of dry air, Water vapour, Ozone, Carbon Dioxide, Aerosols, Air pollution & weather and climate.
Characteristics of the Sun, the nature of solar radiation, geographical and seasonal Distribution of solar radiation, depletion of solar radiation, Disposition of solar radiation under cloudless and cloudy skies and mean disposition of solar radiation, characteristics of terrestrial radiation, absorption and transmission of terrestrial radiation and radiative heating or cooling.
Thermodynamics of dry and moist air:
The law of conservation of energy, specific heat, laws of thermodynamics, Internal energy of real and ideal gases, adiabatic and non-adiabatic processes in the atmosphere, entropy, potential temperature, Poisson equation for dry air, the three sate of water substances, latent heat, relative humidity, virtual temperature, wet bulb temperature and dew point temperature.
Vertical stability of the atmosphere:
Environmental lapse rate, dry and saturated adiabatic lapse rate, latent instability, conditional states, vertical acceleration of a parcel of air, positive and negatives area, relation between potential and latent instability, Geopotential, pressure -height curve, Thermodynamic diagram, use of Tephigram, Statement of Normand’s theorem, Computation of derived moisture variable and the height of pressure surface using Tephigram.
Clouds and precipitation:
Condensation nuclei, Ice nuclei, supercooling of droplets, the formation of clouds, cloud classification, precipitation from water and mixed clouds, how precipitation forms- Bergeron and Collision-Coalescence process and precipitation measurement, fog, snow, haze, mist and dew formation.
Local and Material Time Derivatives, Conservation Principles, Euler and Navier Stokes Equations, Hydrostatic Approximation, Advection, Vorticity, Divergence, Scale Analysis,The Equations in Rotating Coordinates Spherical Coordinates, Dynamical Effects of Rotation, Equations of Motion, Continuity Equation, Equation of State, First Law of Thermodynamics, The Complete System of Equations, Elementary Solutions, Geostrophic Balance, Balanceed Curved Flow; Gradient Wind, Cyclostrophic and Inertial Flow, Vertical Shear: The Thermal Wind, Shallow Water Equations, Linear Wave Motion, Rotational and Gravity Waves, Equatorial Waves, Atmospheric Wave Motion, Free Rossby Waves, Forced Rossby Waves: Orographic and Thermal, Acoustic Waves, Lamb Mode, Kelvin Waves, Potential Vorticity Conservation: Theory and Applications. GroupVelocity,Quasi-geostrophic Equations, Derivation of the system, The Omega Equation. Filtering of Gravity Waves, Geostrophic Adjustment.
Air pressure and winds, different weather pattern, Air mass characteristics, Thermal wind implications, Locating fronts, Vertical cross sections, Backdoor cold fronts, Upper level fronts, Satellite imagery, radar imagery, Polar and subtropical jets, Role in cyclogenesis, Vertical motion associated with jet streaks, Thunder storms, cold wave, heat wave, Tropical Cyclones-Characteristics, Formation, Climatology, Monsoon meteorology, Sea and land breezes, Lake effect snow, Mountain /valley winds, Down slope winds, Topographic blocking, Polar lows etc.
Wave formation, propagation and decay:
Importance of fetch in wave development and its limitations to wave development; Differences in wind waves from swell waves; Example of how waves propagate from its source initially as a wind wave and its final GC travel path as a swell wave some distance down wind, first as a diminished height, and second, the increase in its period wave length; Brief discussion of fetch area and gate; With the use of the Bowditch tables, a brief exercise in determining wave propagation and decay, using true wind values from first exercise; Tie in wind and waves and fetch with discussion of North Wall Gulf Stream and Teuhauntepec episodes; Overview of OPC wind and wave charts, emphasizing differences between regional charts in feet and full ocean charts in meters.
Ocean Atmospheric Processes:
Basic measurements of meteorological/ oceanographic parameters. Importance of observations from Sea. Collection of marine data from Ship’s log and their compilation. Importance of oceans in the atmospheric processes, and their role in eather/climate. Observations from oceans (in situ) and their procedural aspects; VOF. Surface meteorological and upper air observations on board ships, collection, exchange and archival. Ships Weather log. PMO/data collection.
The basic concepts of oceanography:
The basic concepts of hydrophysical processes in the ocean; The main external forces driving ocean currents (earth rotation and wind stress); The heat flux through the ocean surface resulting in vertical stratification of water properties (temperature, salinity and density); The main features of horizontal water circulation (geostrophic flow, Rossby waves and Ekman drift); Vertical circulation (Upwelling), The role of stratification in phytoplankton ecology
Satellites and sensors:
The basic principles of space technology; The basic elements and sampling characteristics of satellite orbits; Electromagnetic spectrum and satellite sensors;
Active and passive sensors; Data transmission to the Earth; Orbit determination techniques.
Remote sensing of the sea:
The general principles of remote sensing of the sea; Sensor calibration; Atmospheric correction; Positional registration; Oceanographic sampling for “sea truth”; Image processing; The main types of sensors:
Visible wavelength “ocean color” sensors;
Infrared radiometers of sea surface temperature;
Passive microwave radiometers;
Active radar-altimeters of sea surface topography;
Active microwave sensors of sea surface roughness.
Oceanographic Applications: Infrared Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature
Infrared radiometry, Interpretation of sea surface temperature, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (MCSST) algorithm, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Coast Watch sea surface temperature data source and software
Oceanographic Applications: Radar-altimeters
Basic principles of satellite altimetry, TOPEX/Poseidon satellite
Sea Surface Height:
• Geostrophic circulation;
Sea Surface Roughness:
• Microwave scatterometer
• Synthetic Aperture Radar
Oceanographic Applications: Ocean Color
Basic principles of satellite measurements of ocean color, Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS); Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS); MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); Patterns of phytoplankton distribution in the World Ocean.
Ocean Color and Phytoplankton
Chlorophyll and photosynthesis, Vertical distribution of phytoplankton in the ocean
Estimation of phytoplankton biomass from satellite ocean color observations, Estimation of chlorophyll fluorescence from MODIS ocean color observations, Coccolithophores and harmful algal blooms, Seasonal cycles of phytoplankton biomass, Global phytoplankton biomass and primary production
Mesoscale variability and coastal pollution:
The main contributors to ocean color:
• Phytoplankton (CHL)
• Suspended sediments (TSS)
• Color Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM)
Horizontal transport of phytoplankton and pollutants in the Black Sea, Spring bloom in Southern California Bight resulting from coastal upwelling, Stormwater plumes in the Southern California Bight
Multi-disciplinary approach: El-Nino 1997-1998 off California
Rossby waves, Kelvin waves and heat distribution in the Pacific Ocean, El Nino- Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, 1997-1998 El Nino event in the Pacific Ocean
1. Physical parameters of sea: tides, waves, light, temperature, currents, density & pressure.
2. Chemical parameters of sea: salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH and nutrients.
3. Shore Environment: Distribution of life on rocky shore, sandy shore and muddy shore ; Zonation and adaptations of organisms.
4. Zoogeography of marine environment with special reference to Indo-west Pacific region.
5. Ecology of coral reefs and mangrove habitats; their special features.
6. Benthos: Distribution of shallow water benthic organisms; Fauna of deep sea and hadal regions – their adaptations.
7. Larval Ecology: Types of larvae and their distribution. Chemical communications and settlement of larvae of marine benthic organisms.
8. Marine animal associations: Commensalism, symbiosis and parasitism.
9. Classification of marine environment: general characters of the populations of the primary biotic divisions (plankton, nekton and benthos).
10. Introduction to plankton: general classification and composition of plankton. Floating mechanisms in plankton. Collection of plankton: general account of instruments and nets employed. Methods of fixation and preservation; Analyses of samples. Standing crop estimation methods. Plankton in relation to fisheries: general account.
11. Distribution of plankton in space and time: Horizontal distribution: neretic and oceanic plankton; geographical distribution and indicator species. Vertical distribution: vertical migrations. Seasonal changes in plankton.
12. Primary production: General account of productivity in different oceans. Factors affecting primary production: nutrients, light, temperature, organic micro-nutrients and inhibitors, grazing.
13. Particulate & dissolved organic matter in the sea Secondary production (Zooplankton) of the sea. Phytoplankton – Zooplankton inter-relationships.
14. Distribution of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the sea. General survey of marine food chains: Pelagic food chains; Benthic food chains. Pelagic food pyramid and factors affecting its production & stability. Mass-mortality in the seas.
15. Marine bacteria: general account on their distribution & their role in the sea
16. General account of larval forms of Crustacea, Mollusca, &Echinodermata. Moulting and growth in decapod crustaceans; regulating factors.
Fundamentals: Simple propagation, rays, sources and receivers, radiated sound, bioacoustics, waveguides, scattering by bubbles, interior fluctuations, and rough surfaces. The near surface ocean: upper ocean boundary layer and rain.
SONAR systems. Transducers and their directivities. Transducer arrays. Array steering. Shaped transducers. High power transducers.
Fourier representation of signals. Filters and noise. Temporal resolution and bandwidth. Improving signal to noise ratio.
Perception of bodies and bubbles by scattering phenomena. Scattering characteristics of marine life. Signals scattered by fish and other bodies. Volume scattering in the ocean. Field estimate of fish densities. Bioacoustics: sensing of plankton and nekton; passive acoustics and marine animals, marine
Sediment characteristics. Marine seismic measurements. Headwaves. Reflection measurements. Echo sounding of the sea floor.
Diffraction of impulsive signals. Doppler effect of moving objects. Doppler navigation. Mean Squared pressure. Remote sensing of the sea floor. Acoustic tomography.
Ocean Dynamics: tomography, time reversal, turbulence.
Ocean Bottom: imaging hydrothermal vents, large scale mapping.
Other topics: noise from pile driving, ocean energy devices, etc.
Molecular Methods in Oceanography |
Course Title: Molecular Methods in Oceanography
Course Credit: 3
1. Isolation, detection, quantitation and preservation of DNA, RNA and protein from biological samples.
2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Real-time PCR.
3. DNA based molecular marker systems- RFLP, AFLP, RAPD; STR based genotyping; DNA barcoding.
4. Molecular hybridization techniques- Southern, Western and Northern blotting.
5. Gene expression analysis- micro-array, SAGE, differential display, etc.
6. Gel electrophoresis- Agarose gel electrophoresis, PAGE, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, capillary gel electrophoresis, etc.
7. Molecular cloning- vectors, restriction enzymes and digestion, transformation, recombinant gene and protein expression, promoter and other regulatory sequence analysis, screening and selectable markers.
8. DNA sequencing techniques, next generation DNA sequencing, genome sequencing.
9. Modulation of gene expression through RNA interference (RNAi).
10. Techniques to study DNA-protein, RNA-protein, protein-protein interactions- EMSA, REMSA, ChIP, Y2H systems, etc.
11. Immunoassays- ELISA, RIA, Gel diffusion assay, etc.
12. Flow cytometry.
13. Genetic mutation analysis.
14. Chromatographic techniques- affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, etc.
15. Immunofluorescence based imaging.
1. Introduction: Ecology, scope of ecology, sub-division of ecology, Principles and concept of ecology, Marine ecology, history and niche of marine ecology; contrasts to terrestrial ecosystems.
2. Bio-geo-chemical cycles: Carbon cycle, Nitrogen cycle. Trophic structure: Food chain, Food web, Ecological pyramids.
3. Habitat: Ecological niche: realized niche, niche overlap, Gause’s competitive exclusion principle, resource partitioning, the nature and global distribution of marine organisms.
4. Ecosystem: concept of ecosystem, types, components of ecosystem, Structure and function of an ecosystem, Major ecosystems, Patterns of the marine environment.
5. Processes: Primary production processes, Microbial ecology, Secondary production.
6. Systems: Estuaries, rock and sandy shores, pelagic ecosystems, continental shelf, deep sea, mangrove forests, coral reefs.
7. Impacts: Fisheries, aquaculture, disturbance, pollution, conservation.
1. The ocean as a biological environment: Zonation of the marine environment; primary productivity, determination of primary production, factors influencing phytoplankton production, primary productivity and fisheries production.
2. Major marine ecological groups: phytoplankton,zooplankton, benthos, nekton and macrophytes; their characteristics, biology and distributions;major fisheries, fishing grounds and fishing in the Bay of Bengal.
3. Marine provinces and biogeography of the oceans: Large marine ecosystems: definition and classification, productivity, and fisheries catches; latitudinal clines in fishes.
4. Ocean biota and environment: Ocean biota’s relationships with the physicochemical properties of the ocean; effects of environmental parameters like temperature, currents, light and salinity on fish biology, behavior and abundance.
5. Commercially important groups of fishes: general and brief account ofelasmobranches, clupeoids (especially Tenualosailisha), salmonoids, scombroids, gadoids, heterosomata,sciaenids, carangids,trichiurids, cat fishes, crustaceans and molluscs.
6. Adaptation of marine organism: Morphological and physiological adaptation of marine fish, mammals, invertebrates and macrophytic halophytes in relation to physico-chemical properties of the ocean.
Petroleum Geology and Geophysics |
Course Title: Petroleum Geology and Geophysics
Course Credit: 3
Sedimentary basin classification, geothermal history of sedimentary basin; Source rock evaluation petroleum generation, migration pathways and efficiencies, Concepts of petroleum systems; fundamental types of petroliferous basins hydrocarbon habitats of Bengal basis and some major petroleum basin upper Assam basin, Niger delta Arabian gulf and U.S. gulf coast
petroleum reservoir description external geometry of reservoir internal geometry of reservoir distribution of porosity permeability distribution of minerals specially clay minerals reservoir of sediment deposition environment deltaic shallow marine shelf fluvial and turbidities ease studies reservoir evaluation from core analysis and wire line log analysis
Introduction, theoretical background of seismic method data acquisition and processing geological interpretation seismic modeling seismic facies hydrocarbon detection case studies
Interpretation of electrical and electromagnetic dad and their application interpretation of gravity and magnetic data and their interpretation application of geophysical well logging for petroleum hydrogeology and environmental geology case studies integration of geophysical methods for hydrocarbon and one deposit exploration.
Introduction to marine mammals: Definition and Taxonomy.
Diversity, Distribution, Habit and Habitat of the four groups i.e.,the cetaceans (dolphins, rorquals and
whales), the sirenians (dugongs and manatees);, the pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and walruses) and the marine
fissipeds (polar bear and two marine otters).
Marine Mammals in Bangladesh.
Basic characteristics of these groups with special references to their adaptation to marine life and to different oceanic niches.
General pattern and possible reasons of evolution of marine mammals.
Breeding biology, breeding season, territoriality, mating, pregnancy, gestation, lactation and parental care of
a obligate ocean dweller (any cetacean or sirenian; preferably Bottlenose Dolphin) and a semiaquatic marine mammals (any pinniped or marine fissiped; preferably Sea Otter Enhydra lutris).
Extinct marine mammals. Threats issues. Whaling.
Conservation measures. Seal culling.
Practical and field work + Viva-voce |
Course Title: Practical and field work + Viva-voce
Course Credit: 3
1. SONAR systems, Sound Rays in an ocean of constant sound speed, Marine seismic measurements, large scale mapping
2. Molecular biodiversity analysis, Molecular hybridization techniques, Population abundance analysis, DNA sequencing techniques, Techniques to study DNA-protein, RNA-protein
3. Introduction to Field Work & Identifying Common marine Organisms, Oceanographic & Zooplankton Sampling Methods, Plankton Analysis & Oceanographic Data
4. Identification of marine fishes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, nekton and macrophytes
5. Aeronautical meteorology, Agricultural meteorology and hydrology, Canopy parameterization, Surface fluxes, Rate equation for ABL depth
6. Seismic method data acquisition and processing geological interpretation seismic modeling seismic facies hydrocarbon detection
7. Collection, preservation and identification of marine mammals. Museum Study of marine Mammals, Marine mammal necropsy,
8. Field work: Visit to marine and coastal areas to observe the oceanographic phenomenon
9. Isolation and quantitation of DNA from biological samples and detection following agarose gel electrophoresis.
10. Isolation and quantitation of protein from biological samples and detection following SDS-PAGE.
11. Isolation and quantitation of RNA from biological samples and detection following agarose gel electrophoresis.
12. Amplification of specific regions of genomic DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
13. Gene expression analysis following reverse transcription PCR.
14. Use of selectable and screenable markers in molecular biology.
15. Collection, identification and quantification of selected biological samples: phytoplanktons,zooplanktons, penphytons, benthos, bacteria, fish and other nekton
16. Fish stock assessment using models and software
Ocean Waves and Tidal Energy |
Course Title: Ocean Waves and Tidal Energy
Course Credit: 2
1. Introduction; wave energy, resources and potential, examples from passed and current R&D. Simplified wave theory; orbits, propagation velocities, stored & transported wave energy. Different types (and classification) of wave-energy converters. Principles for primary conversion. Simplified example: immersed heaving body, mechanical resistance, impedance, and reactance. Energy and power aspects: delivered/stored/ consumed, instantaneous/average, active/reactive. Optimum condition for maximum absorbed wave power.
2. Sinusoidal oscillations: phasors, complex amplitudes, complex mechanical impedance. Waves in different branches of physics: dispersion, propagation velocities. Stored and transported wave energy, intensity related to transported wave energy. Radiation resistance, impedance, reactance, and "added" mass. Absorption of wave energy: resonance absorption, resonance bandwidth.
3. Practical issues: primary interface types, device survival, materials, machinery systems and their use in motion control (reactive/latching). Potential theory, Bernoulli's equation, Laplace equation, boundary conditions, linearization. Fluid velocity in terms of velocity potential. Harmonic plane waves. Phase velocity and group velocity for waves propagating on water.
4. Real sea waves, shoaling, refraction and diffraction. Finite-height waves on deep and shallow water. Fourier analysis of irregular waves, measured wave spectrum, standard spectra, directional sea. Synthesized irregular waves. Wave measurements and data, wave parameters derived from spectral moments. Wave elevation and hydrodynamic pressure in terms of velocity potential.
5. Wave's stored potential energy and kinetic energy. Energy transport, wave-power level. Circular waves, far-field coefficients, far field and near field. Introduction to interaction between waves and a system of oscillators, immersed bodies and pressure distributions (OWCs). Single body interaction, six modes of motion; excitation force vector and radiation impedance matrix.
6. Hydrodynamic boundary-value problem. Green's theorem. A useful surface integral taken on the totality of wave-generating surfaces. Waves satisfying the radiation condition. Proof of symmetry of radiation impedance matrix. Radiation resistance in terms of a far-field surface integral. Motion of a buoy in regular waves. Wave excitation and radiation forces. Resultant heave motion.
7. Numerical results for radiation impedance and excitation force for various body geometries. Mooring system alternatives. Static and dynamic loads. Influence on energy absorption. Reciprocity relations: Haskind relation, radiation resistance in terms of far-field coefficients and in terms of excitation-force coefficients. Far-field coefficients referred to local vs. global origin. Froude-Kriloff force and diffraction force, small-body approximation. Morison’s formula. Areas of validity of diffraction, mass and viscous forces.
8. Linear time-invariant systems. Fourier transforms. Transfer functions and impulse response functions. Causal systems. Kramers-Kronig relations. An energy relation for non-sinusoidal oscillation.
9. Causal/non-causal system for hydrodynamic radiation/diffraction problem. Non-causal relation between hydrodynamic pressure and wave elevation just above. Optimum (reactive) and sub-optimum (e.g. latching) control for maximizing converted power. Problems related to non-causality in relation to optimum control.
10. Tidal dynamics. Using Kelvin and Sverdrup waves to explain primary features of the observed tides. Introduction to numerical solutions of the tidal equations. Initially, simple problems will be addressed related to a simple geometry of a channel or rectangle. Tidal power. Basic laws of tidal energy generation, transport and dissipation. Harnessing the power of tides for the generation of electricity. The methods for evaluation environmental impact of a tidal power development.
11. Describe and quantify the wind, tidal stream and wave energy resources. Understand the conventional analytical techniques that are applied to wind, tidal stream and wave energy converters with a particular focus on development of mechanical power from environmental flows. Quantify the potential electrical output from renewable technologies and compare this to demand. Appreciate the environmental benefits and consequences of using these resources for large-scale electricity generation. Apply standard methods to assess the economic /commercial viability of a marine energy technology or project.
What is a model? Science with Models and the Modeling Process
What is a system? What is environment?
How do we describe them? Interaction and incidence matrix, multiple model representations (flow-stroage, entity-process, state-space)
Single State Variable: Abiotic vs. biotic, state behavior (initial, transient, and steady-state), growth and population regulation, differential vs. difference equations
Two State Variables: Resource-consumer and Predator-prey interactions
Three State Variables: chains vs. webs, exploitative and interference competition, prey choice, trophic cascades
Modelling ecosystem dynamics:
Lotka-Voleterra models; Nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ) models;
Application to contrasting ecosystem scenarios (N. Atlantic vs N. Pacific);
Role of bottom-up vs top-down processes in regulating ecosystem processes;
Additional complexity: size structure, dissolved organic matter, etc;
Role of spatial heterogeneity (patchiness).
Verification, calibration & validation, quantitative and qualitative fit, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, stability analysis.
Model Induction with Prometheus, generic vs. instantiated entities and processes
Ecosystem Network Analysis: Structure and Throughflow.
Global models: representation of biogeochemistry in general circulation models.
Population Dynamics of Marine Organisms |
Course Title: Population Dynamics of Marine Organisms
Course Credit: 2
I. Introductory Material: course goals
-what is a fishery?
-history of fisheries management
-what is a model?
-A general review of concepts of population and stock, types of fishery resources.
-Fisheries data (types, quality and availability), survey methods
II. Population Growth: rates of increase (finite versus instantaneous); derivation;
-Individual growth models
-Other nonlinear models on life history or fishery processes: maturity, discarding, selectivity modeling
-Individual growth curve comparison and the non-linear parameter estimation method; fitting models to data (OLS, MLE, Model error structure)
-Abundance Estimation based on surveys
-Basic population dynamics and Mortality estimation (age/length composition, tagging)
-Elementary population growth (exponential, logistic) with and without catch data
-Production model with parameter estimation method
III. Somatic growth: age and growth estimation techniques
-reporting fish growth
-models of fish length and weight
-comparison of growth rates using linear and nonlinear methods
IV. Mortality: finite and instantaneous rates
-fishing and natural mortality expression
-conditional mortality rates
-compensatory versus additive mortality
-estimation techniques and confidence intervals
V. Stock structure and abundance:
-Structure and abundance. Relative abundance. Sampling surveys.
-Mark-recapture methods. Depletion methods.
-Factors that increase biomass. Size and growth. Growth from length-frequency data. Growth from tagging information. Growth from hard-part analyses. Reproduction. Recruitment.
-Factors that decrease biomass. Age-based catch curves. Length-based catch curves. Mortality from mark-recapture data. Natural mortality.
VI. Stock assessment
-Stock abundance and catches - dynamic production models. Equilibrium models. Non-equilibrium models. Multispecies applications. Potential yield - rough estimators.
-Including growth and mortality. The effects of growth and mortality on biomass. The effects of fishing mortality on a single cohort.
-Including different year classes; age-structured models. Virtual population analysis. The classical yield per recruit model. The Thompson and Bell model.
-Simulation and ecosystem models. A biomass dynamic simulation model. An age-structured simulation model. Ecosystem models. Risk assessment.
VII. Population Models
-equilibrium yield model
-incorporating variation in models
-use and misuse of stochastic models
VIII. Fish Population Trends
-cycles in fish populations
-effects of density
-abiotic versus biotic influences on abundance effects
IX. Models based on Catch-at-Age
-Virtual Population Analysis
-Statistical Catch-at Age model
-Species interactions (competition and predator-prey models, NPZ models)
-Species interaction and implication in fisheries population dynamics and management
-Stock-Recruitment Theory and Practice
-Life history theory and Matrix models (age, size and stage structured models);
-Sensitivity/elasticity analysis for matrix models;
-Catch-at-age analysis (Virtual Population Analysis, cohort analysis)
-Catch-at-age analysis (Sequential Population Analysis, ADAPT)
Marine biotechnology and therapeutics |
Course Title: Marine biotechnology and therapeutics
Course Credit: 3
1. Marine organisms as sources of biofuel.
2. Marine microbial enzymes in the food and pharmaceutical industries; Marine enzymes with applications for biosynthesis of fine chemicals; Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from marine bacteria; Novel enzyme discovery from marine environments; Bio-processing of marine enzymes.
3. Marine bioactives as food ingredients; Marine biotechnology applications in new functional foods; Nutritional and digestive health benefits of seaweed; Nutraceutical values of bioactive marine peptides; Marine nutraceuticals in dairy products.
4. Industrial applications of marine carbohydrates; Marine natural products in the cosmeceutical industries; Biosurfactants of environmental interest from marine ecosystems.
5. Marine algae biomass for removal of heavy metal ions.
6. Transgenic technology in marine organisms; Novel bioreactors for culturing marine organisms; Bioprocess engineering of marine organisms.
7. Anti-viral activities of marine polysaccharides; Marine compounds with anti-helminthic, anti-bacterial, anti-coagulant, anti-fungal, anti-protozoal, and anti-tuberculosis activities.
8. Marine peptides and their anti-infective activities.
9. Marine fungus and bacteria for lead compounds of pharmaceutical importance; Natural products from marine invertebrates for anti-inflammatory and chronic diseases; Marine derived anticancer therapeutics; Marine-derived polysaccharides for regulation of allergic responses; Marine anti-malarials.
10. Anti-photoaging and photoprotective compounds derived from marine organisms.
11. Bioactive secondary metabolites from marine species; Marine biotoxins; Systems microbiology technologies for bio-discovery of marine bioactive compounds.
Submarine and Underwater Communication |
Course Title: Submarine and Underwater Communication
Course Credit: 2
1. Communication network
2. Optical Communication System
3. Medium of Communication System: Satellite medium and submarine cable medium, Transmission Medium: Atmospheric Propagation and Fiber Optics
4. Fiber optical cable system, Fiber Optic Trans-oceanic Cable System and Trans-Atlantic Fiber Optic Cable System
5. Fiber optical communication system
6. Undersea Optical Filter-based Cable System
7. Modulation and Demodulation in Communication
8. Amplitude modulation, Frequency modulation, Phase modulation and Pulse Code Modulation
9. Optical Communication with Submerged Bodies
10. Propagation of Optical Signal under Water
11. Attenuation and Loss
12. Ground to Submerged Submarine Optical Links
13. Communication Device: Source and Detectors
14. Underwater Acoustic Communication
15. Principles of Underwater Sound
16. Underwater Acoustic Communication Channels
17. Communication with Submarines
1. Introduction, Purposes and value of geophysical fluid dynamics
2. Fluid dynamics fundamentals: the Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives
3. Fluid dynamics continued, Introduction to stratification
4. The equation of state, entropy, stratification, sound, buoyancy frequency
5. Inertia gravity waves, introduction to rotation, and working on the sphere
6. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics: They key approximations
7. The Shallow Water Equations
8. Energy Conservation
9. Wave Basics
10. Geostrophic Adjustment and Balance
11. The Quasi-Geostrophic Equations
12. Rossby Waves
13. Barotropic Instabilities, “Stirring” and Jets
14. The two layer equations, Continuous stratification
15. Baroclinic Instability
16. Turbulence Basics
Coastal and Marine Aquaculture |
Course Title: Coastal and Marine Aquaculture
Course Credit: 2
1. Introduction: Present status of brakishwater aquaculture of Bangladesh and globe, Scope, trends and potential of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh, Social and economic importance of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh.
2. Construction of coastal fish farms: site selection, phases of construction of coastal fish farms, various farming systems.
3. Crustacean farming: Design, Operation and Management of shrimp hatchery, farming techniques of shrimp traditional, extensive, semi-intensive and intensive methods. Culture of mud crab and fattening. Origin and history of prawn culture in Bangladesh, Design, Operation and Management of prawn hatchery, prawn monoculture, carp-prawn polyculture, rice-prawn sub-system.
4. Molluscan farming: Life cycle Pila, culture of Pila, green mussel, oyster and clams.
5. Finfish farming: Biology, Hatchery Design, Seed Production and Hatchery Technique, Culture of Seabass, liza parsia and spotted grouper.
6. Culture of live food: Culture of algae, rotifers and brine shrimp.
7. Mangrove fisheries: introduction, classification, mangrove ecosystem, the sundorban mangrove, coastal aquaculture and sundorban.
8. Impacts of coastal aquaculture and sundorban: Impact of shrimp farming on coastal environment and socio-economics of Bangladesh.
Practical and field work + Viva-voce |
Course Title: Practical and field work + Viva-voce
Course Credit: 3
Primary interface types, device survival, materials, machinery systems and their use in motion control, Fluid velocity in terms of velocity potential, Fourier transforms
2. Interaction and incidence matrix, multiple model representations, Nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ) models, Verification, calibration & validation, quantitative and qualitative fit, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, stability analysis
3. Abundance Estimation based on surveys, Basic population dynamics and Mortality estimation (age/length composition, tagging), Virtual Population Analysis
4. Marine bioactives as food ingredients; Marine biotechnology applications in new functional foods; Nutritional and digestive health benefits of seaweed, Transgenic technology in marine organisms
5. Fiber optical cable system, Fiber Optic Trans-oceanic Cable System and Trans-Atlantic Fiber Optic Cable System, Amplitude modulation, Frequency modulation, Phase modulation and Pulse Code Modulation
6. Inertia gravity waves, introduction to rotation, and working on the sphere, The Quasi-Geostrophic Equations
7. Construction of coastal fish farms, Design, Operation and Management of shrimp hatchery, farming techniques, Hatchery Design, Seed Production and Hatchery Technique
8. Field work: Visit to marine and coastal areas to observe the oceanographic phenomenon
1. Introduction: Climate and Climate Change. Overview of global climate change issues; plus a look at the science.
2. Role of the Sun on Climate
3. Paleoclimatology, Past Climates and Classification Schemes
4. Climate Regulators and Feedback Loops
5. Observations of Climate Change. What causes climate to change? How does the climate system respond to input?
6. Impacts of Climate Change. What are the potential consequences, risks, and uncertainties of climate change?
7. Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events. Hot politics.
8. Climate Modeling and Future Scenarios
9. Vulnerability and Adaptation. Cool farming.
10. Energy Sources and the Energy in Things.
11. Mitigating Climate Change.
12. Panels, protocols and the 5th IPCC Report
13. Societal Impacts and Communicating Climate Change
14. Sustainability Initiatives and Career Considerations Staying "Climate Smart ".
Concept and characteristics of coast, Resources of coast: eco-sensitive areas (ESAs) of coast
1. Coastal physical process: Coastal morphodynamics, natural behaviour of coastal area, important physical aspects, observed on the coasts which are vital for a correct coastal zone management.
2. Institutions and organizations in coastal zone: Stakeholders of coastal resources, role of civil society and stakeholder participation in coastal zone management. Role of IGOs, NGOs and GOs in coastal zone management of Bangladesh
3. Vulnerability in coastal zone: Coastal vulnerability; Ballast water problem and impacts of alien species in coastal ecosystem. Coral reefs ecosystems and problems. Vulnerability assessment and fishermen welfare; Types of coastal hazard; Global-scale vulnerability assessment, Risk assessment and management; Decision making based on outputs from vulnerability and risk assessments.
4. Coastal Biodiversity
5. Coastal Resource Economics
6. Coastal Engineering
7. Coastal Hazards: types, causes and consequences
8. Coastal management: hard engineering and soft engineering techniques
9. Coastal Environmental Impact Assessment: Global and Bangladesh context
10. Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM): Concept of EEZ. Method, principles, policy and planning for sustainable development. Legislations for dispute settlement in coastal zone. History, objectives, goals and important articles of United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). EEZ (exclusive economic zone) of Bay of Bengal. Concept of ICZM. Evaluation of integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Bangladesh and other countries; Issues and challenges and conflict of managements of coastal zone and deep sea.
Coastal and Marine Pollution |
Course Title: Coastal and Marine Pollution
Course Credit: 3
1. Introduction to aquatic pollution: general introduction to aquatic pollution; introduction to toxicants - metals, pesticides, POPs, lethal and sub-lethal effects of pollutants.
2. Sources and types of coastal and marine pollution: point &non-point source of pollution including sewage, industrial effluents, oil, agricultural runoff, radioactive and hazardous waste, substances,thermal pollution, desalination plants, cooling plantsetc.Types of pollutants including Organochlorine Pesticides, Organophosporous Pesticides, Heavy Metals, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), DDT, PCBs, HCH, HCB, Dirty Dozens, Pthalates, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Petroleum, Oils, Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated Diberizofurans, Dioxin, MBT and TBT.
3. Mechanism of toxicity by pollutants in coastal and marine biota and ecosystems: Fate of wastes and pollutants. Routes of various pollutants circulation in aquatic ecosystems and possible mechanisms of its toxic action on living organisms. Fate and transport, bioavailability, and modifying factors of water pollutants.
4. Effects of pollution on coastal and marine systems: Principles and methods for the study of toxicity effects. Acute and chronic toxicity, lethal and sub lethal responses. Static Bioassays, Flow through technique, LC50, LD50, Acute and long term toxicity. Bioaccumulation, Bioconcentration Factor (BCT). Effects of pollutants on biotic community, mutagenicity, genotoxicity. Chromosomal aberration, apoptosis, commet assay, micronucleus assay, imposex, safe level of pesticides for water, sediment and aquatic animal especially fish. Toxicological case studies. Genetic damage and molecular response to pollution, Molecular process and physiological response to pollution, Public health effects; Effects of bioaccumulation in fish, shellfish and other aquatic organisms.
5. Pollution management: Monitoring of aquatic pollution, different monitoring programs, Pollution Prevention and control, indicator species and their role. Marine Pollution monitoring and assessment, Management of Marine Pollution. Aquatic pollution regulations and their implications for coastal and marine sector.
1. Nature and History of Ocean Governance
2. Principles and Concepts of Sustainable Ocean Governance
Integrated Coastal Zone Management
Ecosystem Based Management and Zoning
Precautionary and Polluter Pays Principles
3. Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) System as a tool for Sustainable Ocean Governance
4. MSP and Various Uses and Interests Relating to the Ocean Environment
5. MSP in Transboundary Context
6. Principles of Maritime Delimitation
7. Control of Marine Pollution
Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution
Vessel Based Sources of Marine Pollution
Dumping and Other Sources of Marine Pollution
8. Conservation of Marine Biodiversity
9. Marine Scientific Research
Coastal Landscape and GIS |
Course Title: Coastal Landscape and GIS
Course Credit: 3
Concept of coast and coastal zone: beach, surf zone, off shore, coastal water, estuaries, wet lands, lagoons
Coastal resources: distribution, status and importance of coastal resources to environment
Coastal Eco-Sensitive Areas: dunes, mangrove forests, coral reefs, sea grass, fisheries
Importance of coastal habitats
Wave dynamics-wave theory, wave energy, and wave decay
Coastal process: erosion and deposition; features,
Coastal pollution, Coastal land use, Coastal Engineering
Coastal Hazards: types, causes and consequences, Concept of management and planning
Coastal management: hard engineering and soft engineering techniques
Coastal Environmental Impact Assessment: Global and Bangladesh context
Coastal zone management: method, principles, policy and planning for sustainable development
Policy, legislation and organizations pertaining to coastal resource conservation and management
Integrated Coastal Zone Management: Background of ICZM in Bangladesh
An introduction to Regional Landscape Planning, Sustainable Tourism, Marine Sanctuaries
Coastal Development and Facility Design, Site Inventory and Analysis Techniques
Regional climate, geology, hydrology and land use, coastal processes and landforms, land use conflicts and management challenges
Marine Planning and Conservation, Marine Architecture site construction details: marinas, docks, anchorage, Geoarchaeology and Site Formation Processes
Remote Sensing and GIS Methods, Nature of Geographic Information, GIS/GPS systems applied to insular environments, GIS Mapping and Data Collection via GPS, creating layers, Regional Map Development
Coastal and Offshore Structures |
Course Title: Coastal and Offshore Structures
Course Credit: 3
Introduction, Definition and catalog of marine structures, Design criteria and methods of marine structure. General requirement for the design of marine structure.
Material for marine structure (steel; concrete, rock and sand)
The topics covered in the unit include wave mechanics, wave forecasts, wave forces on offshore and coastal structures, structural responses to wave loading, near shore hydrodynamic processes, dynamics of sediment transports, and the design of coastal and offshore structures such as breakwaters, platforms and pipelines.
Sea Wall Design
Rubble Mound Structures
Rock armour Layers
Wave Loading on Cylinders
The Morison Regime
The Diffraction Regime
Trends of research in marine structure
Statistical Techniques for Oceanographer |
Course Title: Statistical Techniques for Oceanographer
Course Credit: 3
1. Definition, scope and importance of statistics in oceanography.
2. Presentation of data.
2.2 Types of data, tabulation of data, frequency and frequency distribution, construction of frequency distribution table.
3. Graphical Representation
3.1 Introduction of graph, types of graphs.
4. Measures of Central Tendency.
5. Measures of Dispersion.
5.1 Different types of dispersion.
6. Moments, Skewness and Kurtosis.
7. Correlation and Regression.
7.1 Correlation: Coefficient of correlation, Different types of correlation, Simple correlation, Rank correlation, Coefficient of determination.
7.2 Regression: Regression coefficient, Simple regression, Multiple regression, Polynomial Regression.
8. Probability Distribution
8.1 Basic concept of probability, Related mathematics, Elementary Probability and Conditional probability.
8.2 Probability distribution, Random variable & Expected value.
8.3 Properties, constants and significance of Binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, Exponential distribution and Normal distribution.
Experimental designs: CRD, CRBD, Latin square and split plot designs.
Test statistics: a) T-tests: One Sample Hypothesis, two and paired sample hypotheses, b) ANOVA (multiple sample hypothesis) - single factor ANOVA, Two factor ANOVA, Nonparametric ANOVA.
Multiple Comparisons: The Tukey Test, DMRT, Newman-Keuls test.
Practical and field work + Viva-voce |
Course Title: Practical and field work + Viva-voce
Course Credit: 3
1. Climate Modeling and Future Scenarios, IPCC Report.
2. Coastal zone management: method, principles, policy and planning for sustainable development Coastal Hazards: types, causes and consequences.
3. Routes of various pollutants circulation in aquatic ecosystems and possible mechanisms of its toxic action on living organisms. Fate and transport, bioavailability, and modifying factors of water pollutants.
4. Monitoring of aquatic pollution, different monitoring programs, Pollution Prevention and control, indicator species and their role.
5. Remote Sensing and GIS Methods, Nature of Geographic Information, GIS/GPS systems applied to insular environments, GIS Mapping and Data Collection via GPS, creating layers, Regional Map Development
6. Material for marine structure (steel; concrete, rock and sand) Sea Wall Design, Vertical Walls.
7. Trends of research in marine structure
8. Types of data, Tabulation of data, Frequency and frequency distribution, Construction of frequency distribution table. Graphical Representation, Introduction of graph, types of graphs.
9. Different types of dispersion. Moments, Skewness and Kurtosis.
10. Assessment of Physiochemical condition: DO, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, pH, salinity
11. Spectrophotometric analysis of organic and inorganic matters in water
12. Methods for the assessment of marine pollution; Bioassay test (LC50, LD50)on marine biota
13. Determination of some trace elements
14. Comparative study of organisms between polluted and unpolluted areas
Mathematical modeling in oceanography |
Course Title: Mathematical modeling in oceanography
Course Credit: 3
Introduction, Topography,The Parameters of state of sea water,The Equation of state of sea water,The Representation of the process of mixing on the temperature salinity (TS) diagram, T-S curve of the waters of the oceans,The line integral in the T-S plain
Hydrodynamic Equations of the sea:The Momentum Equation,Gravitational Forces,The Continuity Equation, Effects of Spin, The Coriolis force and Tidal Force,Total Potential Caused by the Gravity, Internal Forces in a Viscous Fluid, The Salinity Equation, Wave Dynamics
Numerical Simulation of a Large-Scale Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation: Introduction, A Large-Scale Dynamics of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Integral Laws of Conservation, The Symmetrized Form of the Equations of the Atmosphere Dynamics and the Evolutionary Formulation of the Problem in the Ocean Dynamics
Material in Sea Water:Dissolved Materials,The Major Constituents,The Dissolved Gases,The Nutrients,The Trace Elements,Salinity Variations
Mathematical Model for Evaluating the Mass of Mangrove Forest along Coast Line of Indus Delta: Introduction, Mathematical Modeling,Results and Discussion
Introduction; Scope; Comprehensive study of Morphology, Classification, Taxonomy, Ecology, Distribution, and Evolutionary History of the following phyla and classes: (a) Phylum-Mollusca (Classes-Pelecypoda, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda); (b) Phylum-Brachipoda (Class-Articulata); (c) Phylum-Coelenterata (Class-Anthozoa); (d) Phylum-Arthropoda (Class-Trilobita). Stratigraphic and Spatial Distribution of Fossils; Role, Significance and importance of fossils in Stratigraphic Correlation and in Palaeogeography.
Introduction and Scope; Classification and Morphology of Vertebrate Fauna; Study of some Geologically important classes such as Agnatha, Placodermi, Sharks, Bony Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals. Evolutionary history of Dinosaur, Horse, Elephant and Man.
Introduction and Scope, History of Micropalaeontology and its significance; Methods of collection of samples, separation and study of microfossils; Study of Morphology and classification, evolution, ecology and stratigraphic importance of some Common Animal and Plant Microfissils Study of some important Animal Microfossils (Microfauna) such as Foraminifera, Ostracoda, Radiolaria. Microfossila of ‘unknown affinities’; Discoastereriod; Hystrachospherids; Chitinozon; Microfossils (Microflora) such as
Diatoms, Coccoliths, Charophyts, Dinoflagellates, palynology, Importance of Micropalaeotology in Hydrocarbon Exploration.
Evolution and Earth’s Biosphere |
Course Title: Evolution and Earth’s Biosphere
Course Credit: 2
Uniqueness of habitable Earth: Distance from sun, presence on the surface of liquid water, segregation of the earth into core, mantle, crust, ocean, atmosphere, tectonic activity, the preservation of the atmosphere.
Origin of Life: Prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Theories about the origin of life. Evidence for life on the early earth, and evidence for atmospheric modification by simple life forms.
Origin of complex life: Evolution of eukaryotes and metazoans. Relationship between evolution, radiation and the earth’s atmosphere.
The Cambrian Explosion: Rise of predation, skeletons, major biological processes, diversification and evolution.
The invasion of the land: Implications for atmospheric composition and the Carbon Cycle. Major faunal innovation - faunas which have sequentially dominated the earth over the last 550 million years
Dinosaurs: Dominance era, variations & adaptations. A global environmental process. Background and mass extinctions.
Rise of mammals: Terrestrial ecosystems and implications for Si and C cycles.
Biospheres, the process, types and distribution of life. Animal distributions in earth surfaces; Zoogeographical regions; Island fauna; issues of global climate changes and its impacts on life.
Impact of life on the planet: Gaia hypothesis, atmospheric control, the impact of biota on physical weathering, biota as a flux and sink for important chemical compounds.
Glaciations and timescales of climatic change: The Climate System; structure, composition and circulation of the atmosphere and of the ocean.
Glacial-interglacial cycles and millennial timescale climate variability Cooling from the Cretaceous into the modern ‘icehouse’; glacial-interglacial cycles of the past 2 million years and the role of orbital forcing; millennial timescale variability during the last glacial-interglacial cycle; climate of the Holocene.
Law of the Sea and Maritime Boundary |
Course Title: Law of the Sea and Maritime Boundary
Course Credit: 2
1. Evolution/ Historical Development of Law of the Sea.
2. Maritime Zones: Rights and obligations under international law.
3. Baseline: Legal Requirements and International Practices.
Case Study: Analysis of Bangladesh's baseline
4. Maritime Boundary: Delimitation and Delineation.
Practical: Methods and application of relevant factors
5. Maritime Resources: living and non living
6. Continental Shelf and Deep Sea bed Legal Regime
Practical: Modus Operandi of the UN for delineation of UNCLOS Art 76 continental shelf
7. Dispute Resolution
Case Study: Bangladesh
8. Joint Development
Practical: Hypothetical Project Work
9. Marine Environment
10. Marine Scientific Research and Transfer of Technology.
Marine Biodiversity and Conservation |
Course Title: Marine Biodiversity and Conservation
Course Credit: 3
Biodiversity: Basic concepts, importance and conservation needs. Species diversity, Biological and phylogenetic species concept. Basic concepts of speciation, species extinction. Concept of genetic diversity, gene and germ-plasm banks.
Introduction to classification of marine animals of Bangladesh: Principles of classification and nomenclature of marine plants and animals. Diversity of marine Mollusca, crustaceans, fishes, birds, reptile and mammals. Marine animal food and fisheries. Economic importance of marine wild life.
Biodiversity assays: Assessment of biodiversity. Various species diversity indices and theoretical interpretations.
Biodiversity conventions: International and national efforts to conserve biodiversity (Kyoto protocol, Ramseur convention, CBD, NBCF, etc.), Socio-cultural aspects of biodiversity. Biotechnological needs for biodiversity conservation. Traditional knowledge and biodiversity conservation. Concepts of Marine protected areas. Ecological critical area and coastal and marine protected areas, Wild life sanctuaries, National Parks and Biosphere Reserve.
Protecting biodiversity: Factors for decline of biological diversity. Ecotourism and its impact. Approaches for conservation of biological diversity. Concept of threatened species. Threatened and endangered coastal and marine animals of Bangladesh. IUCN red listing. Protection of wild flora, fauna and natural habitats of coastal and marine Bangladesh.
Conservation: Principles of conservation biology, Ex situ and In situ methods of conservation, Genetical and evolutionary principles in conservation.
Bangladesh Hot spots: The Sunderbans reserve forest, Nijhom Dwip and Saint Martin’s Island ecosystem and biodiversity.
1. Introduction: Definition, objectives, significance and types of research
2. The research process: an eight-step model
3. Reviewing the literature
4. Formulating a research problem
5. Identifying variables
6. Constructing hypothesis
7. Research design: definition, concept of research design, function of a research design, types of study designs, experimental research designs CRD, RCBD and Latin square design, selecting a study design.
8. Measurement and Scaling: classifications of measurement scales, scaling, basis of classification and scaling techniques.
9. Methods of data collection: introduction, experiments and surveys, structured and semi-structured surveys, development of questionnaire, collection of primary data, collection of secondary data, case study method.
10. Sampling: introduction, concept of sampling, principles of sampling, types of sampling, survey versus census.
11. Social and participatory methods: PRA/PLA, Matrices, group methods, surveys and interviews, visualizing and diagramming, temporal methods, spatial methods.
12. Writing a research proposal: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Review of literatures, Work plan and activity chart, Financial summary.
13. Writing a research report: thesis, scientific papers, booklet and leaflet.
Practical and field work + Viva-voce |
Course Title: Practical and field work + Viva-voce
Course Credit: 3
1. Mathematical models of marine ecosystems
2. Processes and Fluxes in Marine Ecosystems
3. Spatially homogeneous and spatially structured models
4. Various Approaches to Marine Ecosystems Modeling
5. Individual-based Models
6. Population-level Models
7. Thermodynamical Models
8. Dimensional Analysis and Spectral Models
9. Network Analysis
10. More about Population-level Models
11. A Model of Red Tides
12. A Model of Fish Species Replacement
13. Models of Vertical Structure
14. A Model of Horizontal Structure: “Biological Turbulence”
15. Spatial Models of Plankton-Fish Interactions
16. Parameter Estimation and Verification of Models
17. Exploring the mechanisms of evolution and theories of extinction
18. Hypothesis, null hypothesis, alternate hypothesis, level of significance, P-value, One tailed and two tailed test, power of a test, construction of confidence intervals.
19. The F distribution, some special characteristics of F distribution, application of F tests.
Analysis of variance, Assumption of analysis of variance, techniques of analysis of variance, techniques of analysis of variance one way and two way classification models for ANOVA.
20. Social and participatory methods: PRA/PLA, Matrices, group methods, surveys and interviews, visualizing and diagramming, temporal methods, spatial methods.
21. Collection and Study of fossils
22. Simulate the process of glaciations and interglaciation in Srilanka, North American animal distributions
23. Simple modeling will be incorporated in the class for water and carbon cycle in earth systems.
24. Tour to rocky area of Sylhet and collection of fossils.
25. Determination of requisite size of the quadrant for vegetation analysis in coastal plain.
26. Analysis of frequency distribution of plants/animals in shore/ coral ecosystem by quadrant method.
27. Biodiversity assays: Assessment of biodiversity. Various species diversity indices calculation and interpretation.
28. Visit to an assigned ecosystem to identify of wild plant/animal species used by local communities in different ecosystems. Collect data and generate a biodiversity assessment report.
29. Visit to several conserve area of subject interest, generate a conservation plan report.